As cloud computing continues to shape the modern tech landscape, Microsoft Azure has emerged as one of the leading cloud service platforms, providing a wide range of services to help businesses scale and manage their applications and infrastructure. As a result, Azure professionals are in high demand, and job interviews in this field can be quite challenging. To help you prepare effectively, we have compiled 50 commonly asked Azure interview questions and their answers.
Core Azure Concepts
- What is Microsoft Azure?
Microsoft Azure is a cloud computing platform that offers a vast array of cloud services, including virtual machines, databases, storage, AI services, and more. It allows organizations to build, deploy, and manage applications and services through Microsoft’s global network of data centers.
- What are the main components of Azure?
Azure is comprised of several core components, such as:
- Azure Compute: Offers virtual machines, containers, and serverless computing options.
- Azure Storage: Provides various storage services like Blob, File, Table, and Queue storage.
- Azure Networking: Includes Virtual Network, Load Balancer, VPN Gateway, and more.
- Azure Databases: Offers options like Azure SQL Database, Cosmos DB, and others.
- Explain the differences between Azure PaaS, IaaS, and SaaS?
- PaaS (Platform as a Service): Provides a platform and environment for developers to build applications without worrying about managing the underlying infrastructure.
- IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service): Offers virtualized computing resources over the internet, including virtual machines, storage, and networking components.
- SaaS (Software as a Service): Delivers software applications over the internet, eliminating the need for users to install, manage, or maintain the software.
- What is Azure Resource Manager (ARM)?
Azure Resource Manager is a management layer that enables users to deploy, manage, and organize Azure resources. It provides a consistent management experience and allows users to define resource dependencies, tags, and access control.
- How are Availability Sets and Availability Zones different?
- Availability Sets: Used to protect against single points of failure within a data center by distributing VMs across multiple fault domains and update domains.
- Availability Zones: Offer higher availability by distributing resources across multiple data centers within a region, providing resilience against data center failures.
Azure Virtual Machines
- What is an Azure Virtual Machine (VM)?
Azure Virtual Machine is a scalable computing instance hosted on the Azure cloud, providing on-demand computational resources.
- What is the difference between a managed disk and a standard disk in Azure?
- Managed Disk: Azure-managed disks are automatically managed by Azure, providing features like automatic backups and better reliability.
- Standard Disk: Traditional storage accounts where you need to manage the disks manually.
- How can you scale Azure VMs automatically based on demand?
Azure Virtual Machine Scale Sets allow automatic scaling of identical VMs based on metrics like CPU utilization or network traffic.
- What are Azure Reserved Virtual Machine Instances?
Azure Reserved VM Instances allow users to reserve VMs in advance for one or three years, offering significant cost savings compared to pay-as-you-go pricing.
- Explain Azure VM Extensions.
Azure VM Extensions are small applications that enhance VM functionality. Examples include custom scripts, antivirus installations, and more.
- What is Azure Virtual Network (VNet)?
Azure Virtual Network is a private network within Azure that enables communication between Azure resources securely.
- What is Network Security Group (NSG)?
NSG is a firewall that filters inbound and outbound traffic to Azure resources based on rules and policies.
- What is Azure Application Gateway?
Azure Application Gateway is a load balancer that directs traffic based on URL routing rules.
- What are Azure VPN Gateway and ExpressRoute?
Azure VPN Gateway allows secure connections between on-premises networks and Azure VNets. ExpressRoute offers a dedicated private connection to Azure, providing higher security and lower latency.
- How can you achieve high availability for an Azure VM?
Availability Sets or Availability Zones can be used to achieve high availability for Azure VMs.
- What is Azure Blob Storage?
Azure Blob Storage is used to store unstructured data like images, documents, videos, and more.
- What are the different redundancy options available in Azure Storage?
Azure offers three redundancy options: Locally Redundant Storage (LRS), Zone-Redundant Storage (ZRS), and Geo-Redundant Storage (GRS).
- Explain Azure Files.
Azure Files offers fully managed file shares in the cloud, accessible using the standard Server Message Block (SMB) protocol.
- How can you secure Azure Storage accounts?
You can secure Azure Storage accounts using Shared Access Signatures (SAS), Azure RBAC, and Azure AD-based access control.
- What is the maximum size of a single blob in Azure Blob Storage?
As of now, the maximum size of a single blob in Azure Blob Storage is 4.75 TB.
Azure App Services
- What is Azure App Service?
Azure App Service is a PaaS offering that allows developers to build, deploy, and scale web and mobile applications.
- What are Deployment Slots in Azure App Service?
Deployment Slots enable you to deploy and test your application in separate environments before swapping it into production.
- Explain the difference between Azure App Service and Azure Functions.
Azure App Service is used for hosting web applications, APIs, and mobile backends, whereas Azure Functions are used for serverless event-driven computing.
- How can you auto-scale Azure App Service based on demand?
Azure App Service offers built-in auto-scaling options that scale your application based on metrics like CPU utilization, memory, or custom metrics.
- What is Azure Logic Apps?
Azure Logic Apps is a service that allows you to automate workflows and integrate various systems and services.
Azure SQL Database
- What is Azure SQL Database?
Azure SQL Database is a fully managed relational database service that provides high availability, security, and automated backups.
- What is the difference between Azure SQL Database and SQL Server on Azure VM?
Azure SQL Database is a fully managed service, whereas SQL Server on Azure VM requires manual management of the VM hosting SQL Server.
- How can you improve the performance of Azure SQL Database?
Performance of Azure SQL Database can be improved using techniques like indexes, query optimization, and choosing the appropriate service tier.
- Explain Geo-Replication in Azure SQL Database.
Geo-Replication provides asynchronous replication of your Azure SQL Database to a paired region for disaster recovery.
- What is Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) in Azure SQL Database?
TDE encrypts Azure SQL Database data at rest, adding an extra layer of security.
- What is Azure Active Directory (Azure AD)?
Azure AD is Microsoft’s cloud-based identity and access management service that helps users sign in and access various resources.
- How can you enhance the security of Azure VMs?
Security measures for Azure VMs include Network Security Groups (NSGs), Azure Security Center, and Azure Update Management.
- What is Azure Key Vault?
Azure Key Vault is a secure service that allows you to manage keys, secrets, and certificates used by cloud applications and services.
- What is Azure DDoS Protection?
Azure DDoS Protection safeguards Azure-hosted applications from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.
- How can you secure data in transit in Azure?
You can secure data in transit by using HTTPS for web applications and VPN or ExpressRoute for private connections.
Azure Identity and Access Management (IAM)
- What is RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) in Azure?
RBAC in Azure is used to control access to Azure resources based on roles like Owner, Contributor, Reader, and more.
- What are Managed Identities in Azure?
Managed Identities provide an identity for resources like Azure VMs, allowing them to authenticate with other Azure services securely.
- How can you grant temporary access to resources in Azure?
You can use Azure AD’s Conditional Access policies or Azure AD B2B (Business-to-Business) to grant temporary access to external users.
- Explain Azure AD Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA).
Azure AD MFA adds an extra layer of security by requiring users to verify their identity through a secondary method, like a phone call or a mobile app.
- What are Azure AD App Registrations?
Azure AD App Registrations allow you to integrate your applications with Azure AD for authentication and access control.
- What is Azure DevOps?
Azure DevOps is a set of developer services used for version control, build automation, release management, and more.
- What are Azure Pipelines?
Azure Pipelines is a CI/CD service in Azure DevOps that automates the build and deployment process.
- What is Infrastructure as Code (IaC) in Azure DevOps?
IaC allows you to define your infrastructure using code, providing version control and easy replication of environments.
- What is a Release Pipeline in Azure DevOps?
A Release Pipeline automates the deployment process from a build to production, ensuring consistent and reliable releases.
- How can you ensure code quality in Azure DevOps?
Azure DevOps offers integration with code analysis tools like SonarCloud or ESLint to enforce code quality standards.
Azure Monitoring and Management
- What is Azure Monitor?
Azure Monitor provides monitoring and insights into the performance of applications, services, and infrastructure in Azure.
- How can you set up automated alerts in Azure Monitor?
Azure Monitor allows you to configure alerts based on metrics, logs, or activity logs to get notified about specific conditions.
- What is Azure Automation?
Azure Automation enables the automation of repetitive tasks in Azure using runbooks.
- Explain Azure Policy.
Azure Policy allows you to enforce organizational standards and compliance by defining rules for Azure resources.
- What is Azure Cost Management and Billing?
Azure Cost Management and Billing help you monitor and optimize your Azure spending, providing insights and cost control features.
Preparing for an Azure interview can be an overwhelming experience, given the vastness of the platform and the range of services it offers. However, with dedication, practice, and a solid understanding of the core concepts and services, you can confidently tackle Azure interview questions.
Remember, beyond knowing the answers, interviewers often appreciate a problem-solving mindset, practical experience, and the ability to discuss real-world scenarios. So, ensure you have hands-on experience with Azure services and be ready to showcase your skills effectively during the interview.
Best of luck in your Azure career journey!